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工业的能源效率Energy Efficiency for Industry [David Malka大卫·马尔卡]
发布者:管理员

Abstract: Given the fact that most of plants in various industries currently do not manage their energy poorly, and the fact that in the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese government stressed on energy structure optimization, this paper introduces a comprehensive solution to industrial plants that is aimed to improve the energy efficiency in the plants, and create savings in terms of energy for the plants. 摘要:基于现阶段大部分工厂对于能源的管理较为粗放,并且中国政府在“十三五”计划中强调优化能源结构,本文介绍了一套针对工业工厂制定的解决方案,该方案旨在提升工厂的能源效率,为工厂创造能源收益。 Key words: Energy; efficiency; management; solution 关键词:能源;效率;管理;解决方案
1. Current Status of Energy Management for Industry 1. 工业能源效率的现状 1.1 Problems 1.1 问题 Currently, most industrial plants manage their energy incorrectly. Plant owners are focusing on production, product quality, safety and environment. I definitely agree that these fields are very important, but that is not enough. In mid-sized plants, annual energy consumption may total $30-50 million and even more, which is a great deal of money. Therefore, it would be appropriate to emphasize the energy issue accordingly. Moreover, energy efficiency may improve production output, environment, product quality and safety. 目前,大多数工厂的能源管理方式都不完善。工厂所有者着重关注生产、产品质量、安全和环保。我非常同意上述方面是重中之重,但这是不够的。一些中型工厂的年度能耗可以到达3000到5000万美元,甚至更多。这是一个非常大的数字。因此,能耗也应该获得相应的关注。再者,能源效率的改善甚至有可能带来产量、环境、产品质量以及安全方面的改善。 To verify the fact that the attention put to energy is currently inadequate is most plants, I would like to suggest an experiment. Ask the plant manager whether he knows or has a summarizing document indicating the amount of money paid for energy consumption in the past year and what was the consumption of all types of energy used in the past year. I can assure you that 90% of the respondents will not be able to provide such a document, which shows that energy management at the plant is deficient and requires immediate improvement. On the opposite, if you ask about the amount of production last year, you will get a quick and precise answer with all the relevant details. 为了验证目前大部分工厂对于能源关注不足这一事实,我有一个提议:向工厂经理提问:他是否知道去年一年他的工厂在能耗方面花了多少钱?各项能源的消耗量是多少?他是否在整理过相关的文件来总结上述能耗情况?我认为90%的经理没有办法拿出一份这样的文件来,那么这就说明他们工厂的能耗管理是不足的,需要即刻整改。反之,如果你问他们去年的产量是多少, 你会得到一个快速且精确的回答,涵盖所有相关的细节。
1.2 Suggested Solution 1.2 建议的解决方案 We are aiming to improve the energy management on the site. How can we achieve this goal? To manage the energy on the site properly, we have to understand the energy consumption and how much we pay. To do this, we need a quality system to measure the total consumption or supply of energy, in order to understand the overall situation on the site. Afterwards, we would be able to examine every detail and choose the area we need to focus on.  First, we should focus on the main consumers with high energy cost and then the process begins. 我们的目标是改善工厂的能源管理。如何来实现这个目标呢?要想合理地管理工厂的能源,我们必须理解能耗及其成本,其前提就是有一个高质量的系统来计量能源的供销,进而摸清工厂的总体能耗现状。只有这样,我们才能核查每一个细节,才能选择我们需要专注的区域。我们应该首先关注那些成本高的主要能源消耗装置,然后开始优化流程。
We need to examine the efficiency of large consumers by using smart tools that can help us see an even bigger picture and derive smart ideas to increase efficiency and save energy. It should be noted that the senior management must believe in the process and be committed to it, and lead it while allocating resources and evaluating performance throughout the process. 我们需要通过使用一些先进的,可以帮助我们进行更深入了解的工具来检验工厂中大型耗能装置的能源效率,并且想出一些明智的想法来增效betvictor92 mobi。需要提出的是,工厂的高管需要对这个优化的过程有信心,有决心,在领导这个能源效率优化的整个过程中,分配资源,评估绩效。
One of our main problems is awareness to efficient work. There are many ways to raise awareness among employees, such as energy training, establishment of a performance evaluation system, which can be a software continuously displayed in the control rooms, establishment of incentives for success, as well as addition of an energy supervisor for the entire site. 效率提升工作将会遇到很多的难题,强化效率意识就是其中之一。提升员工能源意识的方法有很多种,例如,进行能源培训,建立绩效考核系统(可以以软件的形式长期显示在控制室屏幕上),建立激励机制,在全厂设立能耗监督岗位等。
In addition, it is possible and even recommended to involve the employees in the process of evaluating performance on the site in terms of energy and efficiency, while using sophisticated tools, thus achieving the involvement and curiosity of the staff on the front line, who are also the majority – do not forget this. 此外,在评估工厂的能耗状况,使用先进工具的这一过程中,如有可能,我推荐把工厂内部的员工也纳入这个团队中,这样的话,可以增强一线员工的参与性和好奇心。这些一线员工可是工厂的主要群体——不要忘了这一点。
2. Technology Application in the Solution 2. 解决方案中技术的运用 The energy efficiency technology that we bring is based on an organized methodology, which includes the use of smart tools and involves the managers and employees of the plant, meaning that it is based on joint work. 我们所带来的能源效率提升技术基于一套条理清晰的方法论,其中包含了先进工具的使用,也会吸纳工厂内的经理和员工参与进来,也就是说,这种能源效率的提升需要大家的通力合作。
At first, a general data collection is needed, which means the amounts of various categories of energy that the plant purchase, such as coal, electricity, steam, water, fuels, etc. need to be metered and collected. Based on that, we then need to build a list that include how much of which kind of energy had been distributed to which consumer. After that, additional tools will be adopted to measure the energy efficiency. Next, analyses will be conducted based on the results from the tools and ideas will be generated according to the analyses. After that, we need to filter all of the ideas and finally stay with a limited number of ideas. A idea ticket will be created for each idea that passed the filtration, including information such as saving calculation, investment required, payback period, etc. Afterwards, we decide together with the plant management on when and how to implement each idea. Finally, we can build a savings plan and streamline energy efficiency for over five years. In the course of the project, we are required to build performance tests for each process, while others are built on software, while others are on control room boards, allowing all employees to be exposed to performance and even take part in their examination. 首先,需要进行广泛的数据收集。也就是说,需要对工厂所消耗的各类能源,诸如煤,电,蒸汽,水,燃料等,进行计量和数据采集。接下来,在数据的基础上,我们就可以开始使用工具来衡量工厂的能源效率了。之后,基于工具的使用结果,我们需要进行分析,并且生成许多改进想法。进行想法筛选之后,我们需要定出一些最后的想法。此后,我们就需要为每个通过筛选的想法做一张表格,这张表格包含了诸如该想法的收益计算,投资需求,投资回报周期等信息。最后,我们会制定出一份收益计划,并且在未来五年内根据计划,实施相应的想法,从而精简工厂的能源效率。在该项目的整个过程中,我们需要为每一个流程建立绩效考核机制,一些可以通过软件来编写,一些也可以在控制室的展示板上体现出来,这样一来,工厂员工就可以亲身接触能源绩效,甚至参与到能源绩效考核之中。
This program is suitable for any industrial plant needing energy efficiency improvement. The benefits of the program are: raising awareness and changing energy behavior both among employees and managers. In addition, the energy status of the plant can be organized, and all the issues with energy will be also discussed. There will be a lot of ideas of improvement, some of which even without any investment. From this point on, the plant does not return to its previous state, but progresses and becomes more efficient both in awareness and behavior and in their processes. 这个项目适合任何一个需要在能源效率方面做出改进的工厂。具体的裨益之处有:在经理和员工范围内提升能源意识,改变能源行为;工厂内的能耗状况也会得到充分的梳理,所有跟能源相关的事项都会被拿出来讨论;生成许多改进的想法,有些想法甚至不需要投资。从此,工厂不会在返回到之前的能源状况,只会进一步提升能源效率,而在意识行为,在各项流程上都会变得更有效率。
Furthermore, we recommend to establishment of an energy department that could initially include just one person who is solely responsible for collecting all the information. In addition, he constantly conducts performance tests according to the goals set by the plant and always thinks ahead and examines improvements and introduction of new technologies. 此外,我们还推荐建立一个能源部门,这个部门在初期甚至可以只有一个人,它需要负责能源信息的采集,需要根据工厂所设立的目标持续进行能源绩效考核,还需要持续地长远考虑,检验之前的改进措施是否有效,并且引入新的技术。
3. Examples and Analysis 3. 例子和分析 3.1 Cost and Load Analysis 3.1 成本与负荷分析 As an example, we shall use an application tool called Cost and Load Analysis to examine the compressed air system at the plant. 举个例子,我们可以通过运用一个叫做“成本与负荷分析”的工具来检测压缩空气系统的能耗状况。



Prepare a table of compressors at the plant. The table should include the amount of compressors, name of each compressor, flow rate of each compressor and possible pressure of each compressor, and after measurements – the cost per compressed air unit of each compressor. In addition, prepare a list of consumers and build a long-term consumption distribution. A simple analysis will allow us to see that some compressors should be activated before the others, and we will probably find that we do not need to activate all the compressors, which will enable saving energy. This is one of many examples of using the tools. 准备一份工厂中空压机的列表,包含空压机的数量,每台空压机的名字、流量、压力范围,以及通过计量和计算所得出的——每台空压机的单位成本。此外,再准备一份压缩空气用户的列表,建立一个长期的消耗分配机制。通过简单的分析,我们可以发现对于一些空压机的使用我们是需要分先后顺序的,我们还可能发现我们不一定需要启动所有的空压机,这样的话,我们就有可能节省能耗。这就是众多工具中的一个例子。
3.2 Losses Reflected by Unit Consumption 3.2 单位能耗所反映出来的损失 Another example of examining the process energy efficiency by looking into unit consumption: 再举一个例子。这个例子可以通过对单位能耗的深入研究来检验能源效率:
Take the most energy-intensive equipment and start to examine the energy consumption according to the manufacturer per ton of product, i.e. the technology we chose. What is the actual energy consumption per ton of product? In most cases, the actual consumption will be higher that the consumption provided by the manufacturer, and this is where the engineering work begins by examining the source of gaps, and for each gap, we should find a solution, thereby contributing to increased efficiency and energy savings. 找到能源消耗最密集的设备,并开始基于制造商所提供的单位能耗,也就是这个技术的单位能耗来检验该设备的能耗情况。那么该设备的实际单位能耗又是多少呢?在大部分情况下,实际单位能耗都会比制造商所提供的单位能耗要高。那么我们的工程师就需要着手来检验造成差距的原因,针对每个原因提出解决方案,从而达到提升能源效率,节省能源的目的。

Many other important tools can be used to achieve maximum efficiency. 在其他方面还有很多重要的工具可以用来争取最佳效率。
4. Summary and Future Enlightenment 4. 总结与未来启示 4.1 Summary 4.1 总结 The government provides grants and launches information projects aimed to present the Chinese industry with the possible value of streamlining industrial energy processes. The main reason the government focuses on energy efficiency in Chinese industry is that most of the energy is wasted due to poor management of energy and electricity consumption at plants and industrial workplaces. 中国政府正在通过提供拨款,开展各种项目等方法来改善工业能源现状。政府之所以这么做,是因为大部分能源都正在因为粗放的管理而在工厂和其他工业场所流失浪费。 The program, which aims to streamline and economize energy cost on industrial plants in an intensive manner, is a system-wide program that lists a long list of steps arranged within a methodology that touches the entire energy chain on the site. The plan defines expected savings, expected investments and priorities. In addition, the plan presents the things that must be done and the means of implementation, while defining milestones until completion, and even performs performance tests according to the defined goals. 该项目旨在以密集的方式精简和节省工厂的能源成本,是一个系统性的项目,在一套方法论的指导下安排一系列步骤,这些步骤涉及到工厂的整个能源链。该计划确定了预期的收益,预期投资和其他优先事项。 此外,该计划还会提出必须做的事情和实施手段,同时还会确定整个过程的每一个里程碑直到项目完成,甚至还能根据既定目标执行能源绩效考核。 Energy efficiency saves money - it's a fact. Most of the businesses that have already entered the process did not necessarily have to do so for reasons of environmental thinking, but out of recognition of the return that investment generates in streamlining. And if it is out of the environmental reasons and can make profits, it will be an even better thing to do, too. According to previous experience, a program as such can reduce around 10% of the annual energy cost for a plant. 能源效率提升可以省钱——这是一个事实。已经实施这个项目的大多数企业并不一定是出于环境因素的考虑,而是出于对投资回报的认可。而如果是出于环境因素的考虑,也可以赚取利润,那么这更是锦上添花了。基于过往经验,这样的一个项目可以为一个工厂降低其年度能耗的10%。
4.2 Future Enlightenment 4.2 未来启示 For proper energy management, the following are required: 要做到合理地管理能源,需要做到下列事项:
Commitment of the management, defining the energy policy, setting goals and objectives, conducting work procedures, reporting and training employees, testing energy efficiency of various processes and taking corrective actions, constantly updating and improving, defining the required energy indicators. 管理层担起责任,对于能源政策的解读,目标和任务的设定,工作流程的推进,员工的报告和培训,各项工艺的能源效率测试,矫正措施的采用,持续的更新和改进,明确能源指标等等。
Defining the energy indicators required at the plant, while taking into consideration the following aspects: 而所谓明确能源指标,则需要考虑以下几个方面的问题:
·       Reduction of environmental impacts. ·       减小对环境的影响。 ·       Identification and detection of energy efficiency potential. ·       识别并找到能源效率提升的潜力。 ·       Benchmarking – comparisons with similar enterprises vs. sector data. ·       设立标杆——和相似企业或者部门数据进行比较。 ·       Establishment of indicators to examine energy efficiency. ·       建立指标来检验能源效率。
Energy Efficiency Design 能源效率设计 ·       At the planning stage, prior to implementing any new project or installation, energy considerations should be taken into account. ·       在计划设计阶段,实施任何新的项目或者进行任何新的安装之前,都需要考虑能源方面的因素。 ·       Optimal efficiency of energy between various systems. ·       在各个系统之间达到能源效率最优。 Monitoring & Measurement 监控和计量 ·       Implementation of monitoring and measurement systems in order to verify savings and find new sources for efficiency. ·       设立监控和计量系统,核实收益,寻找新的效率提升点。 ·       Installation of technologies that will lead to energy efficiency. ·       采用新的技术,进一步提升能源效率。